Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of mortality worldwide. As many as 40% of patients hospitalized with influenza-like illness are reported to be infected with more than one type of viruses. Mathematical models can be used to help us understand the dynamics of respiratory viral coinfections and their impact on the severity of the illness. We develop a mathematical model which allows for respiratory cells to be infected simultaneously with two types of viruses. A mathematical analysis is performed to assess the full behavioral dynamics of the model. We find that chronic coinfection does not occur in this model; infection grows due to only one viral species. Some other mechanism must be responsible for the long-lasting coinfections in humans.
The goal of this study was to conduct a survey of 913 M-dwarf stars from the Lepine and Shara Proper Motion(LSPM) catalog within 33 parsecs. This research was conducted to improve upon the statistics of nearby multiple M-dwarf star systems. Identifying and confirming multiple systems at both wide and small separations will expand understanding of M-dwarf formation by comparing these results to existing star formation models. Data for these targets was collected with the Robo-AO camera on the Palomar 60in telescope. Separation and position angles were determined and compared for two epochs of the images containing multiple stars, one taken in 2012 and the other taken in 2014, to look for changes in these values. Stars with little change in position with respect to one another suggest they are common proper motion pairs. The Washington Double Star(WDS) catalog and other resources were used to further determine binarity. There were 50 multiple star system candidates found with a multiplicity fraction of 28.6±3.0 and a companion star fraction of 34.7±2.1.
Author(s): Hannah Richstein Physics & Astronomy Kat Barger Physics & Astronomy Jing Sun Physics & Astronomy
Advisor(s): Kat Barger Physics & Astronomy
Location: Session: 1; B0; Table Number: 3
(Poster is private)
Our universe contains billions of galaxies, made up of stars, gas, and interstellar dust. We can examine the light emitted from these galaxies to learn about the different energetic events occurring within them. These include supernova explosions in the disk and active black holes at the center, which are both enhanced by galaxy interactions. Before the light from the stellar activity and the warm gas reaches us, it scatters off dust along its path. This causes the light to appear redder than it originally was. If we do not correct for this reddening effect, we could misinterpret the processes occurring within the galaxies. This project examines the properties of two galaxies interacting over a large distance and illustrates the importance of reddening correction for better understanding galaxy evolution.
Many influenza experiments are done in vitro, however, not all cell lines used in these experiments possess the proteins necessary to cleave hemagglutinin, an important step in cell infection. Trypsin is a protein used to facilitate in vitro influenza infections. Trypsin cleaves the viral surface protein hemagglutinin, allowing it to fuse with the cell membrane and enter the cell. We use data from in vitro influenza infections in the presence and absence of trypsin to parameterize a within-host mathematical model of influenza infection. This allows us to quantify the dynamical changes caused by the presence of trypsin.
Author(s): Elizabeth Sizemore Physics & Astronomy Marais Culp Physics & Astronomy Md. Tanvir Hasan Physics & Astronomy Christine Pho Physics & Astronomy
Advisor(s): Anton Naumov Physics & Astronomy
Location: Session: 1; B0; Table Number: 6
Graphene and its derivatives are novel materials with a number of unique properties that can be applied in electronics, sensing and biotechnology. Particularly, graphene oxide (GO) is an exceptional system that, unlike graphene, can be chemically mass-produced at low cost and possesses physical properties that are critical for biomedical applications. GO exhibits pH-dependent fluorescence emission in the visible/near-infrared, providing a possibility of molecular imaging and pH-sensing. It is also water soluble and has a substantial platform for functionalization, which allows for the delivery of multiple therapeutics, or the attachment of different sensing moieties. Some of these properties can be adjusted by the means of chemical/physical processing to fit the desired therapeutic delivery or sensing approaches. We utilize and modify these properties to yield a multifunctional delivery/imaging/sensing platform geared toward the analysis of cancer therapeutics delivery in vitro. In our work GO serves as a drug transport agent when paired with cancer therapeutic drugs and as a molecular marker for imaging the delivery pathways. The optimal emission and excitation of the graphene oxide flakes are selected to maximize the imaging modality in the spectrally-confined region and reduce the effects of biological autofluorescence. We also modify GO physical properties via controlled oxidation to maximize the emission and reduce the cytotoxicity to low/negligible levels: we report over 90% cell viability with GO concentration levels of 15 ug/mL based on the MTT assay in HEK-293 cells. GO emission in healthy (HEK-293) and cancer (HeLa) cells is quantified for a variety of pH environments, as well as flake sizes, to identify the ideal conditions for cellular internalization and pH-sensing of acidic cancerous environments. In addition, in-vitro fluorescence microscopy analysis provide quantitative assessment of the drug delivery and preferential targeting for cancer versus healthy cells. The results of this work suggest GO as an innovative and effective multifunctional platform for cancer therapeutics.
A galaxy environment influences its internal properties. All galaxies start out small and grow bigger after merging with other galaxies. We are conducting a statistical study on isolated and interacting galaxies to determine how their environment impacts on their star-formation ability. We are using observations from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, which has already observed more than 3000 galaxies. We are examining the differences and similarities of the gas and stars in isolated and interacting galaxies to explore their past and current star formation activity. From these comparisons, we will identify which conditions promote and hinder star formation to learn how different types of galaxies evolved. An example of an isolated galaxy is shown here.
Restitution describes a functional relationship between the action potential duration (APD) and the preceding diastolic interval (DI). It plays an important role in the function of the heart and is believed to determine the stability of heart rhythms. We investigate the effects of various antiarrhythmic drugs on dynamic and S1-S2 restitution properties of action potential duration of ventricular cells by using a human ventricular cell model. The restitution hypothesis suggests that the slope of the restitution curve governs the transition to alternans. Our study examines the slope of these curves for three classes of drug to determine whether they are proarrhythmic or antiarrhythmic.
Terror management theory suggests that when mortality concerns are salient, religion can serve as a defense in an attempt to boost self-esteem and shield against the potential for anxiety. Interestingly, however, very little research has been conducted among individuals who actively question their religious beliefs in order to attain a better understanding (i.e., quest religiosity). Recent research suggests that quest religiosity moderates the effects of mortality salience in that participants who were high in quest experienced lower self-esteem following reminders of death. Building on these findings, the current studies examined the connection between quest religiosity, mortality-related concerns, and meaning in life. Study 1 found that individuals who were high in quest experienced a heightened accessibility of death-related thoughts. Study 2 demonstrated that a greater fear of death was associated with a higher likelihood of questioning one’s religious beliefs. Heightened feelings of quest religiosity, in turn, led to lower ratings of meaning in life. These results add to the existing body of literature suggesting that thoughts of death can serve to decrease well-being, but that this effect is influenced by individual differences, namely trait quest religiosity.
Birdsong, like human speech, is a vocal behavior that requires birds to precisely coordinate the activation of respiratory and vocal organ motor systems in order to generate sufficient subsyringeal air pressure for phonation. In both juvenile and adult songbirds, ablation or inactivation of HVC (proper name) neural activity disrupts temporal features of song. Consistent with the role of respiration in controlling song tempo, we have previously demonstrated that HVC contributes to song respiratory features in adult male Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica, Urbano & Cooper, 2015). Here we further explored these findings by recording subsyringeal air sac pressure in singing birds prior to, during, and following recovery from HVC inactivation. Dialysis probes were implanted into either left or right HVC in adult male Bengalese finches (N=5), allowing for reversible suppression of neural activity (muscimol, 1.5 mg/mL, 1.125mg/mL, 0.75 mg/mL, 0.375 mg/mL). In all animals, mean air sac pressure and initial (10 ms) slope of song-related expiratory pulses (EPs) dropped significantly during HVC inactivation and recovered (Amplitude: F(2,8) = 12.8, p = 0.003; Slope: F(2,8) = 15.3, p = 0.002). We observed that, independent of the drug concentration, peak song EP amplitude exhibited a similar pattern of non-linear recovery over time while muscimol remained in the dialysis probe and continued to diffuse into HVC. In a subset of the data, we used an already established measure of efficacy (Beggs & Dobrovolny 2015) to model the change in peak song EP amplitude during HVC inactivation and we were able to produce consistent estimates for the variables in our model. We then ran a Monte Carlo simulation and parameter stability analysis to determine that the chosen model is robust and truth-conducive in predicting future values for peak EP amplitude under continued diffusion of muscimol into the tissue. We tested this model against simpler models to rule out alternative explanations. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to muscimol (4-6 h) induces mechanisms that reduce the efficacy of muscimol and result in gradual recovery of peak song EP amplitude.
Abstract: Problem: Although the current political landscape is divisive, some politicians have adopted the strategy of delivering the message of hope in their speeches. For instance, conservatives are striving to make America great again, implying a temporal return to some idyllic moment in American history. Conversely, liberals are more focused on moving forward by echoing the appeals of change to be a better country in the future. The current study was interested in whether these thematic differences in speech could influence nostalgic thinking, predict candidate support for both real and fake political candidates, whether it would matter if it was a liberal or conservative was giving the speech, and whether political nostalgia would interact with frame of reference and speech type to predict candidate support for the current election. Method: Participants consisted of both undergraduate students as well as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (mTurk) workers. Persons completed individual difference measures such as self-compassion, nostalgia proneness, national nostalgia, religious fundamentalism, and social dominance. Participants then received a speech excerpt from a fake gubernatorial candidate in the upcoming election who was either a Democrat or Republican. The speech itself was either past or future oriented in language style. Individuals then rated their state nostalgia, support for the fake candidate, filled out some additional political questions, and then indicated their support for both Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. Data analysis plan: Data will be analyzed using moderated regression in SPSS to look at potential interactions between political reference, speech, nostalgia, and one’s political party on candidate support. Differences between the fake candidate and real candidates are expected in the same direction. Interestingly, preliminary analyses of the results are demonstrating that Republican participants express greater feelings of nostalgia in response to a past-orientated speech from a Republican candidate; whereas, Democrats experience more nostalgia in response to a future-orientated Republican candidate’s speech. Conclusion: It is hypothesized that past oriented speeches will be capable of producing increases in nostalgic thinking. These predicted results would be the first to demonstrate the interaction between political preferences and nostalgic thinking. Additionally, if nostalgic thought is more tied to conservative support and future oriented speeches are linked with liberal support, this would importantly demonstrate that liberals and conservatives rely on different temporal modes of thinking about America values. These findings would be important for future political campaigns and by elucidating the different psychological strategies that can be utilized to motive candidate support among liberals and conservatives respectively.
Author(s): Meg Cooksey Psychology Gary Boehm Psychology Michael Chumley Biology Brenton Cooper Psychology Julia Peterman Psychology James Taylor Psychology Catherine M Urbano Psychology Jordon White Psychology
Advisor(s): Michael Chumley Biology
Location: Session: 1; 3rd Floor; Table Number: 6
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory loss and cognitive decline (Borlikova et al., 2013). AD is marked by the accumulation of amyloid-beta (A) protein deposits throughout the brain (Miklossy, 2008). The presence of soluble A oligomers alters synaptic formations and implicates cognitive dysfunction (Cleary et al., 2005). Furthermore, established research indicates intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of human A potentiate cognitive deficits associated with learning and memory retrieval. (Amini et al., 2015; Borlikova et al., 2013; Freir et al., 2011). While the importance of synaptic formations in the learning process has been affirmed in existing literature, the specific phases of learning affected by human and murine A infusions is not fully understood. Here we sought to explore how A oligomer infusions impact associative learning at different points of time. Using a contextual fear-conditioning (CFC) paradigm, two experiments were carried out to disentangle which phase of learning, consolidation and/or retrieval is impacted in the presence of A oligomers. In Experiment 1, animals received an injection of A or sterile saline immediately after training and were tested 48 hours later. Results indicate that A infusions immediately after training resulted in decreased freezing behavior, indicating that A disrupted the consolidation and/or retrieval of the context shock pairing. In Experiment 2, animals were trained in CFC and received injections of A or sterile saline 46 hours later. Two hours following infusions, freezing was assessed. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that A infusions 46 hours post-training had no impact on freezing behavior. Together these results indicate that A is disrupting the consolidation of new memories and is not impacting the recovery of previously consolidated information.
Author(s): Emily Corrigan Psychology Mary Eliza Baker Psychology Jeffrey Gassen Psychology Maggie Kleiser Psychology Julia Peterman Psychology Randi Proffitt Leyva Psychology Marjorie Prokosch Psychology Jordon White Psychology
Advisor(s): Sarah Hill Psychology Gary Boehm Psychology
Location: Session: 1; 2nd Floor; Table Number: 3
Life history theory predicts that exposure to extrinsic mortality threats early in life leads to a faster life history strategy characterized by preference for present versus future outcomes. The condition of one's body also determines the probability of survival. With this in mind, we predicted that a marker of damage to one's body, levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, would also promote preference for present over delayed outcomes.
We found that levels of serum IL-1β predicted more reported impulsivity, less preference for delaying gratification, and a more present temporal orientation. Additonal analyses suggest that environmental stress may partially exert its effect on temporal focus through somatic damage.
Author(s): Gabriella D'Ambra Psychology Robert Arrowood Psychology Emily Brown Psychology Claire Martinez Psychology Ana Padgett Psychology Maddie Weinstock Psychology
Advisor(s): Cathy Cox Psychology
Location: Session: 2; 1st Floor; Table Number: 3
From the perspective of Terror Management Theory (TMT), humans hold the potential to experience paralyzing terror due to the understanding of our eventual death. This terror results from the effort to reconcile death awareness and the evolutionary struggle to survive. While TMT research has accumulated many significant findings since its origination, basic assumptions of this theory have recently been challenged. Some critics are pointed out that there is no direct evidence for the experience of “terror” within the TMT literature (Marten & van den Bos ,2014) as mortality salience (MS) effects have been largely observed through the use of self-reported questionnaires and a terror after MS manipulation is mostly inferred. The current study attempts to address these concerns by seeking to obtain the confirmation of unconscious terror to mortality salience measured via salivary cortisol response.
Author(s): Jamie G. DuBois Psychology Brenton G. Cooper Psychology Courtney Favoloro Psychology Emily A. Spradley Psychology Catherine M. Urbano Psychology
Advisor(s): Brenton G. Cooper Psychology
Location: Session: 1; 2nd Floor; Table Number: 4
Songbirds are an appealing animal model for speech acquisition partially due to the fact that they are also vocal learners, meaning they acquire their vocalizations through imitation (Doupe & Kuhl, 1999). Birdsong is defined as a "chain of discrete acoustic elements arranged in a particular temporal order" (Berwick et al. 2011). While Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) have a repertoire of 8-12 syllables (i.e. acoustic elements), the sequence of these syllables can vary according to set patterns and rules. Song sequence stereotypy, linearity and consistency are measures of syntax. The Bengalese finch song is semi-variable. Some syllable-to-syllable combinations are fixed, whereas some syllables (hereafter, “branching syllables) can be followed by multiple syllables (hereafter, “branching points”). In the avian brain, two different neural pathways are responsible for song acquisition and production, and both pathways are controlled by the avian premotor nucleus, HVC (proper name). Previously, we have found that male Bengalese finches show initial acoustic impairment and gradual recovery over the course of seven days after small, unilateral HVC microlesions (right hemisphere = 4, left hemisphere = 4). Here we explore whether HVC contributes to maintaining and recovering song syntax, as well as potential differential effects of lefts versus right HVC microlesions. To answer these two questions, we analyzed the syntax of previously collected songs at three different time points: baseline (pre-surgery), post-surgery day 4 (PSD4), and post-surgery day 7(PSD7). Each syllable was assigned a unique label, however, due to the extent of song degradation at PSD4, we did could not “match” syllables across days. Using an online java applet, the Songinator (Zevin, Seidenberg & Bottjer, 2004), we computed scores for stereotypy, linearity and consistency. Using a 2 x 3 repeated-measures ANOVA, we did not find any significant differences across time points for stereotypy (F(1.09, 6.53) = 0.18, p = 0.40), linearity (F(2,12) = 0.94, p = 0.42), or consistency (F(2, 12) = 0.63, p = 0.55). We also did not find an interaction effect for stereotypy (F(1.09, 6.53) = 0.84, p = 0.41), linearity (F(2, 12) = 1.25, p = 0.32), or consistency (F(2, 12) = 0.27, p = 0.77). However, we observed that right HVC microlesions exhibited increased linearity over time (Pre: 0.29 ± 0.02, PSD4: 0.31 ± 0.02, PSD7: 0.34 ± 0.01) . We examined this finding in more detail by computing the a change ratio (PSD4/pre-surgery) for the number of syllables and the average number of branching points per syllable. We found that HVC damage increased the number of unique syllables in both groups. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the number of branching points, but only in the left HVC group, compared to the right HVC microlesion (t(6) = 1.853, p = 0.057, one-tailed). These results support previous findings that HVC lesions disrupt vocal production and suggest novel syllables are the result of impaired motor control. These results also suggest that control of song syntax is somewhat lateralized. Left HVC microlesions initially impair the birds’ ability to produce a stereotyped song by making syllable transitions more variable. Therefore, the right HVC controls song variability, and left HVC song stereotypy.
According to terror management theory, individuals defend their cultural beliefs following mortality salience. The current research examined whether naturally occurring instances of death (an Ebola outbreak, a mass shooting) correspond to results found in laboratory studies. Study 1 showed that priming Ebola during an actual outbreak led to a greater accessibility of death-related thoughts. Study 2 demonstrated a heightened fear of mortality and religious defensiveness following an Ebola manipulation, but was moderated by negative affect. Study 3 found that a nearby terrorist attack resulted in increased worldview defense at the location of the attack, but was also moderated by negative affect. These results suggest that realistic death manipulations operate similarly to lab based manipulations, but also that a predisposition toward negativity causes individuals to be more affected by these events.
Receptive identification trials can be conceptualized as match-to-sample (MTS) trials in which reinforcement of a particular comparison selection (e.g., a picture) is conditional upon the presence of a specific sample stimulus (e.g., a spoken word). Consistent with common laboratory practices and related clinical recommendations, Petursdottir & Aguilar (2016) found a reliable sample-first advantage when they taught typically developing boys to identify birds and flags via computerized instruction. However, unpublished data from our lab suggest that the sample-first advantage may be less reliable when the instructional protocol includes an error correction component. The purpose of the current study was to compare acquisition under sample-first and comparison-first conditions with and without an error correction component that involves a prompted trial following each incorrect response or failure to respond. Participants were three typically developing boys between 5-7 years of age and three typically developing girls between the age of 5-6. Sessions were assigned based on age. 6-7 year olds underwent 8 total sessions; compiled of 32-trial sessions each. 4-5 year olds underwent 16 total sessions; compiled of 16-trial sessions each. Each participant completed a total of 64-trial sessions for each condition. In all evaluations (at the time of submission), accuracy in the comparison-first condition was greater with than without error correction. In the sample-first condition, error correction did not seem to aid acquisition. Error correction procedure may have been ineffective in sample-first condition due to increasing delay between sample and opportunity to respond. Less sample-first advantage than in previous studies may have been related to instruction not continuing to mastery.
Author(s): Megan Henderson Psychology Caitlin Kearney Psychology Randi Proffitt Leyva Psychology Tori Short Psychology
Advisor(s): Sarah Hill Psychology
Location: Session: 1; 1st Floor; Table Number: 4
Previous research demonstrates a reliable association between low paternal investment and daughters’ precocious and risky sexual behavior. However, much less is known about the psychological changes that occur in response to paternal disengagement that encourage these patterns. Here, we begin to redress this empirical gap by testing for the effects of primed reminders of paternal disengagement and developmental exposures to one’s father on women’s perceptions of male mating interest. Across five studies, women who described a time that their father was absent (vs. a comparison state) perceived greater: sexual and romantic intent in men’s described actions (Study 1); sexual arousal in male target faces (Studies 2 and 3); and mating interest from a male confederate (Study 4). Similar results were obtained among women who experienced greater exposure to harsh-deviant paternal behavior during development, with perceived sexual intent predicting unrestricted sociosexual behavior and attitudes in this sample (Study 5). Taken together, the current studies provide evidence that low paternal investment (including primed paternal disengagement and harsh-deviant fathering) causes important changes in women’s perceptions of men that may influence daughters’ mating behavior in adulthood.
Author(s): Jill Hoffman Psychology Emily Brown Psychology Cathy Cox Psychology Gabriella D'Ambra Psychology Katherine French Psychology Mike Kersten Psychology Paulina Mozo Psychology
Advisor(s): Cathy Cox Psychology
Location: Session: 2; B0; Table Number: 4
Previous research suggests that individuals pursue close relationships because they help people cope with mortality awareness (Mikulincer, Florian, & Hirschberger, 2003). Further, there is some evidence to suggest that individuals achieve a sense of death transcendence through the prospect of parenthood. For example, following reminders of death, people have a greater desire for children (e.g., Wisman & Goldenberg, 2005), have more vivid and accessible parenthood-related cognitions (Yaakobi, Mikulincer, & Shaver, 2014), and are more negative toward strict birth-control policies and more positive toward younger family members (Zhou, Liu, Chen, & Yu, 2008). However, no prior work has examined parenting behaviors directly. For this reason, the purpose of the present research was to examine whether people display more behaviors associated with responsive caregiving following reminders of mortality. Participants were exposed to a mortality salience manipulation in which they were randomly assigned to complete items relating to their fear of death or public speaking (the control condition). Following this, everyone took part in a simulated baby paradigm to assess participants’ responses to a simulated infant doll that was programmed (wirelessly) to begin crying inconsolably (Rutherford, Goldberg, Luyten, Bridgett, & Mayes, 2013). The extent to which participants engaged in caregiver-based touching behaviors (i.e., holding the baby in a meaningful way in an attempt to calm or soothe the baby) toward the simulated crying infant served as the dependent variable. The results revealed that, in comparison to the control condition, reminders of death led participants to engage in a greater degree of caregiver-based touching behaviors while interacting with a simulated crying infant. Overall, these initial findings suggest that reminders of death influence actual caregiving behaviors and suggest that people may display more optimal parenting behavior in the real world when thoughts of death are salient.
Every day people are bombarded with information, and forgetting some of this information is inevitable. Forgetting minor things, such as what you ate for lunch yesterday, is not particularly problematic. However, forgetting important things such as taking your medication can have important consequences especially for older adults. Previous research has found that college students were biased to judge forgotten information as unimportant (dubbed the forgetting bias; Castel et al., 2012). The present research investigated whether older adults demonstrate the same bias. To do so, participants studied words that were each assigned a value indicating the importance of remembering the word. After studying the words, participants had a free recall test. Finally, participants had a surprise test were they were asked to recall the point value that was originally paired with each word. Results revealed that older adults, and young adults, assigned lower values to words that they forgot on the recall test, suggesting that they were perceived as unimportant. Thus, older adults demonstrate the same forgetting bias as young adults. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms driving this bias with older adults as well as the generalizability of the findings.
Background: There is significant variation in toddlers’ abilities to suppress dominant responses and perform subdominant responses, an aspect of temperament known as effortful control. Effortful control emerges relatively late in infancy, beginning around 12 months of age and surging around 24 months of age. This late pattern of development allows for earlier-developing factors to influence the development of effortful control, like the parent-infant attachment relationship and other temperamental constructs. While the importance of the parent-infant attachment relationship is widely supported by research, one noteworthy limitation of this body of work is the underwhelming amount of research on the father-infant attachment relationship (Hoffman, 2000; Lounds, Borkowski, Whitman, Maxwell, & Weed, 2005). Evidence suggests that father-child interactions provide children with unique experiences that may not occur with their mothers (Grossmann, et al., 2002). For this reason, the current study examines both parent-infant attachment relationships. Previous research has also shown that one aspect of temperament can moderate the expression of other aspects of temperament (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003; Kochanska, 1993; Rothbart, Ahadi, & Evans, 2000). With each dimension of temperament emerging at different times, it is important to understand which temperamental constructs predict a greater capacity for effortful control.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether secure mother-infant and father-infant attachment relationships at 12 months predicted high levels of effortful control at 3 years of age. A second line of interest was to examine whether infant levels of negative affectivity and surgency/extraversion at 6 months predicted high levels of effortful control at 3 years of age.
Methods: 33 toddlers (age in years, M = 3.16) and their parents (32 mothers; 32 fathers) participated in the current study. Parents completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), a parent-report measure of infant temperament, when the infant was 6 months old. Mothers and infants returned to the laboratory when the infant was 12 months old and participated in the strange situation procedure, a measure of parent-infant attachment. Fathers and infants returned to the laboratory when the infant was 13 months old and completed the same strange situation procedure. When the child reached 3 years of age, mother, father, and child returned to the laboratory and completed a battery of tasks measuring effortful control.
Results: The relationship between effortful control and parent-infant attachment was investigated using a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Preliminary analyses were preformed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedascity. Attachment was investigated using infant attachment behaviors measured in the strange situation procedure. There was a moderate, positive correlation between infant resistant behaviors (M = 2.33, SE = .272) with dad and effortful control scores (M = .105, SE = .065), r = .310, n = 30, p = .048, with high resistance behaviors associated with higher levels of effortful control. Additionally, there was a moderate, negative correlation between infant contact maintenance behaviors (M = 1.34, SE = .151) with mom and effortful control scores, r = -.338, n = 30, p = .034, with high contact maintenance associated with lower levels of effortful control. The relationship between effortful control and temperament was investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity. Temperament was investigated using parental reports on the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. There was a moderate, positive correlation between the low pleasure dimension (M =5.50, SE = .152) of temperament and effortful control (M = .105, SE = .065), r = .354, n = 31, p = .025, with high scores in low pleasure associated with higher scores of effortful control.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the father-infant attachment relationship is unique from the mother-infant attachment relationship, as different interaction behaviors with mom and dad are associated with effortful control. Interestingly, infant resistant behaviors with dad at 12 months are associated with higher levels of effortful control. Secondly, infant contact maintenance behaviors with mom are associated with lower levels of effortful control. These results could be explained by the fact that these interaction behaviors displayed by an infant exist on a continuum. It could be argued that children who exhibit high levels of resistant behavior towards mom are also able to resist a dominant response and initiate a subdominant response easily, indicating high level of effortful control. Similarly, while some contact maintenance is a component of secure attachment, too much contact maintenance could indicate an insecure attachment relationship, as the child could be too dependent on their parents and fail to explore the environment.
Author(s): Nicholas Jones Psychology Chris Holland Psychology Murphy Marx Psychology Ashley McFeeley Psychology Leslie Nolan Psychology
Advisor(s): Charles Lord Psychology
Location: Session: 2; B0; Table Number: 5
Context effects within attitude research are well documented; however, recent developments in evolutionary psychology (e.g., fundamental motives framework) offer new possibilities for the study of attitudes. The Fundamental Motives Framework states that we have motives which reflect evolutionary goal relevant to survival and reproduction, and these motives weave their way through human life, guiding behavior to satisfy goals. These motives interact with behavior in several ways, but research remains to be done in certain areas. In two studies, we examined how fundamental motives interact with women’s attitudes of potential (male) partners. In two studies, we examined two separate fundamental motives and a number of attitude items. We predicted in Study 1 that women would have more positive attitude toward a cold, but competent man when primed with resource scarcity (as compared to a control. In Study 2, we predicted that women would have a more positive attitude toward a cold but dominant man when primed with disease threat. In both studies, we found that women’s attitudes toward our two “real” men were affected by fundamental motives. In Study 1, women expressed less of a preference of the warm over the cold (but competent) man when primed with resource scarcity, and in Study 2 women expressed less of a preference of the warm over the cold (but dominant) man when primed with resource scarcity. We discuss potential mediators, though found no evidence to support a mediator at this time.
Author(s): Murphy Marx Psychology Chris Holland Psychology Nicholas Jones Psychology Ashley McFeeley Psychology Leslie Nolan Psychology Elaine Slaven Psychology
Advisor(s): Charles Lord Psychology
Location: Session: 1; 3rd Floor; Table Number: 2
(Poster is private)
When do people self-radicalize? When and how, for instance, do so-called “lone wolves” go from mild dislike for a target group to extreme hatred, all without any negative additional information? The evidence gathered about recent lone wolf terror attacks around the world suggests that the attackers all too often sat in a room somewhere and simply “thought” themselves into extremely negative attitudes. Attitude Representation Theory (Lord & Lepper, 1999) suggests that self-radicalization can happen to anyone, and describes how the process of self-radicalization might work. Self-radicalization, defined as adopting a more negative attitude toward a stimulus at time 2 than at time 1 without any additional external information, can occur through self-generated thoughts that, in the interval, increase the probability of more negative associations to the attitude object. What might those intervening self-generated thoughts be? One possibility is that they might consist of generalization. People generalize all the time. Especially when we know little about them, we tend to assume that others who misbehave in one situation will do so in other situations.
To test whether generalization might polarize negative attitudes toward a social group, we gave MTurk workers (of many different ages and backgrounds) information about 14 members of a fictitious group, who called themselves choosy, aggressive, wordy, blunt, tense, dissatisfied, restless, rebellious, demanding, strict, argumentative, cunning, and anxious. Then a randomly selected half of the participants were asked to generalize, by writing in a text box for 5 minutes detailed descriptions of how members of VSG#62 might display the 14 traits in both work and social situations. After that, all participants completed a battery of demographic and individual difference questionnaires, tried to recall the initial 14 traits attributed to members of VSG#62, and reported for the second time how much they liked or disliked the group. As predicted, participants who did math problems continued to dislike the VSG#62 group, but no more than they had previously. Participants who were encouraged to generalize, in contrast, reported disliking the VSG#62 group more intensely than they had before. We discuss the sample, and potential individual differences that might influence these effects.
(Poster is private)
The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible facilitative role of visual imagining in the acquisition of generative associations; that is, relationships between stimuli that are inferred and not direct (e.g., given A equals B, and B equals C, the relation between C and A must be inferred). Undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two instructional sequences. The tact-first group learned to label a set of visual images, and then to verbally associate pairs of labels in the absence of the images. The intraverbal-first group learned first to verbally associate the pairs labels, and then to apply them to the images, precluding the use of visual imagination during the label association phase. It was predicted that the tact-first group would have shorter response latencies on a subsequent visual matching test. Data collection is ongoing. The implications of how people make new connections based on existing knowledge will be discussed.
The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of three instructional procedures on the acquisition a small artificial language. The language contained twelve nonsense words (i.e., 5 nouns, 5 verbs, and 2 case markers) and had both semantic (i.e., nouns and verbs corresponded with images and actions) and syntactic (i.e., object-verb-subject canonical word order) components. The three instructions consisted of simple exposure, discrimination instruction, and production instruction. The exposure group was given time to study positive exemplars of the artificial language. The discrimination group was tasked with differentiating between positive and negative exemplars in a selection-based task. The production group was tasked with vocally producing sentences when given visual exemplars in a topography-based task. Participants were then given discrimination and production tests with stimulus scenes that were not involved in instruction. In phase I, results of a 2 (pre-post) x 3 (group) mixed model ANOVA indicated that the production group produced the artificial language significantly greater than the exposure and discrimination group, and the exposure group significantly produced and discriminated significantly greater than the discrimination group at post. Finally, in phase II the results of a one-way ANOVA indicated that the discrimination group took significantly more trials to reach mastery criterion following the initial posttest. Implications for the instruction of second language acquisition are discussed.
Author(s): Haley Moore Psychology Christopher Hagen Biology Julia Peterman Psychology Jordon White Psychology
Advisor(s): Gary Boehm Psychology Michael Chumley Biology
Location: Session: 2; 3rd Floor; Table Number: 9
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is currently estimated to affect over 5 million Americans. There is no treatment for AD, and the incidence is expected to increase, as our population grows older. Many risk factors for AD have been identified, several of which involve stress and inflammation. Repeated injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, have previously been shown in our laboratory to exacerbate AD pathology, i.e. increase amyloid-beta (A-beta) levels and cognitive dysfunction. Our study aims to explore the connection between early-life stress and AD pathology in adulthood. Furthermore, we seek to understand how inflammation interacts with previous stress exposure. Using a non-transgenic mouse line, maternal separation (MS) was implemented daily from post-natal day 2 (PND 2) to the time of weaning (PND 21) to model developmental stress. After weaning, all animals were housed under regular conditions until adulthood. At 5 months of age, animals were administered LPS for 3 or 7 days , modeling an acute stress event. Following LPS administration, cognition was assessed using a contextual fear-conditioning (CFC) paradigm. Tissue was then collected and A-beta levels were quantified. Current results demonstrate that cognition was impaired in animals exposed to early-life stress, but this effect was not potentiated by LPS administration. Additionally, MS alone was insufficient to increase A-beta levels, but MS interacted with 3 days of LPS exposure to exacerbate A-beta accumulation in the hippocampus. Overall, results suggest that early-life stress exacerbates inflammation-induced AD pathologies. Further studies are needed to identify the specific mechanisms involved in inducing these changes.