A Novel Zeroth Diffraction Oder Light Intensity Measurement System
Typical optical measurement system requires all pieces and parts to be attached to the optical board that can be inconvenient if the devices to be tested need to be changed frequently. We designed a new measurement system that overcomes the inconvenience associated with the conventional design . The measurement system we created is centered on a large 90 degree holding fixture that allows the device under test to lay flat on the board with two adjustable alignment bars to fix its position for easy access and removal. The light source and light receiver of the power meter are anchored on the vertical holding rack. The holding rack is slotted so that the locations and angles of the light source and light receiver can be adjusted independently that enables multiple degrees of freedom for the measurement system.
Author(s): Daniel Lopez Engineering Chelsea Boh Engineering Sam Busa Engineering Nhu Le Engineering
Advisor(s): Morgan Kiani Engineering
Location: Third Floor, Table 8, Position 1, 1:45-3:45
Power quality is the compatibility between the voltage that comes out of an electrical outlet and the power load that is being plugged into it. A power load (also known as electrical load) is any electrical device that needs to be plugged into a larger power grid to run, such as televisions and microwaves.
Different devices require different power loads to run at full efficiency and while electrical systems are capable of handling newer power loads, they are currently set to work with older ones as well. This may cause some side effects on power quality in the system. In this project, we investigate how to improve the power quality in the system caused by an inductive older load.
MEMS based phase light modulator (PLM) is a device developed by Texas Instruments and is similar to the micromirror device but uses vertically actuated mirrors instead of rotating mirrors. This paper will explore methods to optimize the diffraction pattern images produced by the PLM.
One method that will be explored includes benchtop optical setups. The incident angle of the laser with respect to the PLM array and the specific components such as beam expanders and apertures improve the performance of the PLM. Other areas of exploration are the Increased electrodes that actuate the mirrors allowing for higher bit resolution. A MATLAB algorithm using the Gerchberg-Saxton method will be used to retrieve the phase information from an image. We will explore ways to improve the holographic image quality through algorithm changes.
The reduction of CO2 emissions and the avoidance of Global Climate Change necessitate the conversion of the electricity generation industry to rely on non-carbon sources. Additionally, the mitigation of the duck curve effects in microgrids requires the development of grid-independent buildings. Computations were performed for a cluster of two thousand grid independent houses in the North Texas area. The results indicate that the minimum power dissipation occurs when the houses are supplied by 10,000 kW rating wind turbines and 4,400 kW rating photovoltaics. The minimum dissipation is then 6,030 MWh and the storage needed in 4,708 m3 of hydrogen storage. Additionally, increasing the efficiencies of the houses and decreasing the demand of the houses had significant effects on the minimum dissipation and the volume of storage needed.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 3 billion people use indoor fires using solid fuels such as biomass, coal, and wood. Studies by the WHO indicate over 3 million deaths per year along with multiple health concerns for these families. This research is determining the effectiveness of using a common cellphone app and filter paper to measure the indoor air quality of these homes. This will include a statistical comparison between two cellphone apps using filter paper collected from rural homes in Nicaragua that use indoor wood burning ovens. The filter papers are composed of papers from many homes before and after a ventilation system was installed.
A Faraday cage is an enclosure that shields electromagnetic fields from entering or exiting the cage. While metals with high electrical conductivity are expected to effectively demonstrate the operation of a Faraday cage, preliminary observations of a sealed cast iron cylinder allowing the transmission of Bluetooth signals between a smartphone and wireless earbuds across it suggested the need for further research into electromagnetic wave propagation through closed metal systems. This research utilized Bluetooth connectivity tests through sealed metal cylinders made of cast iron, aluminum, and stainless steel to analyze the working of Faraday cages, explore related material properties, and isolate possible reasons for the conflict in expected behavior when electromagnetic transmission is detected through such cages. The research methods included conducting Bluetooth connectivity tests with different cylinder orientations and analyzing the strength of the transmitted and received Bluetooth signal. The key findings of this study suggest that material properties, spatial orientation, and the strength of the electromagnetic source influence the transmission of electromagnetic waves through sealed metal cylinders. The implications of these findings suggest potential exceptions to a common electromagnetic phenomenon and provide insights for future research.
Author(s): Rigoberto Santillan Engineering Natalie Arguello Engineering Daniel Lopez Engineering Edgard Rodriguez Engineering Lysa Sugira Engineering
Advisor(s): Sue Gong Engineering
Location: Third Floor, Table 10, Position 1, 1:45-3:45
Texas Instruments is developing a new micro-optical-electro-mechanical device called phase light modulator (PLM). The TCU senior design team developed a robust testing system that can expose 20 PLM devices to different light sources with the capability of monitoring the temperature and light intensity at each device location. The system design and construction of the testing system will be presented. In addition, the selection and operation of LEDs, temperature and light sensors, as well as the optical components that are needed for the light source and sensors will be discussed.
DC to DC Conversion is important in modern electronics, and to the automotive industry. It is the process of converting a direct current (i.e constant) signal into another form of direct current (DC). A small-scale example of this is a car adapter, which converts the 12 volts provided by a car outlet into the 5 volts a cell phone needs to charge, known as a ‘step down’ converter. The main objective of the project is to design and test a bidirectional DC to DC conversion system. Most DCDC converters available on the market are unidirectional, i.e., either ‘step down’ or ‘step up’ the DC signal. Those that can switch are called bidirectional converters, but many available cannot handle the higher requirements of an electric motor. A system that can switch directions based on specific system parameters allows for situational flexibility, and the use of new devices for more efficient energy use. The supercapacitor is one such device. They provide power more efficiently than batteries but can only store a small amount of energy. They must be recharged often, which requires a step-down conversion from a power source (much like the car adapter example). Supplying the motor from supercapacitors requires a step-up conversion. So, to use, and reap the most benefit from these supercapacitors, switching from step up to step down based on their charge is a requirement. Ultimately, this would allow for the use of supercapacitors in an EV as part of a future project.
Author(s): Nathaniel Gilly Engineering Kate Harris Engineering Brent Hewitt Engineering Carson Maher Engineering
Advisor(s): Sue Gong Engineering
Location: Third Floor, Table 3, Position 1, 1:45-3:45
In this presentation, the process of creating a map of an area using ground truth data will be explained. The overall objective of this research project is to be able to capture a remote image of a land mass and be able to discern what sections within that image are a certain material. This is done through the matching of spectral signatures, which are unique for every physical material found on earth. A demonstration of spectral signature matching will be shown to understand the basic idea of how the mapping is done. A model expanding on this idea with the use of ground truth data will be shown with results showing how the map will be made.
Hydrodynamic Analysis of Surfboard Fin Performance set out to analyze how the outline and size of a surfboard fin can impact performance. Performance analysis involved running images from the manufacturer’s website through a MATLAB code that would process the image to determine an appropriate, numerical method, based on fluid dynamics, to explain categorical differences between fins. After testing for differences between categories for the following performance metrics: the vertical line of action, the horizontal line of action, the ratio between the tip area and the rest of the fin, and the resulting angle created by comparing the vertical and horizontal lines of action, the angle was found to be the most statistically significant factor for determining fin categories. Moving forward, users can input an image, along with the fin dimensions, to determine the performance characteristics of a fin, without having to purchase a fin. This project explains the underlying equations that are utilized, the fundamental assumptions that are made, how the results are generated, and how users can interpret the results.
Author(s): HyunMyung Kang Engineering Omar Hussein Engineering Rose Ibarra Engineering Nhu Le Engineering Emmanuel Matthews Engineering Natalia Perez Engineering
Advisor(s): Morgan Kiani Engineering
Location: Basement, Table 11, Position 1, 11:30-1:30
Autonomous drones have been commercially available for decades. The integration of sensors has allowed robots to interact with their environment and resulting in autonomy. This quadcopter team takes on the challenge of creating an autonomous quadcopter using a frame, motors, electronic speed controllers, propellers, a Raspberry Pi, and an RPLidar. The team achieved remote control flight of the drone through pre-installed software—QGroundControl. The onboard computer will collect data using the RPLidar sensor and then send the data to the flight controller. Setting the robot (talker) and the virtual machine (listener) as nodes, they can communicate with each other through the ROS master.
Author(s): Connor Nolan Engineering Corban Anderson Engineering Antonio Malvar Gonzalez Engineering Jose Miranda Engineering
Advisor(s): Robert Bittle Engineering
Location: Second Floor, Table 6, Position 2, 11:30-1:30
Generative design implementation in this project had the goal of replacing sheet metal structures previously used to hold relays and electromechanic switches with 3D printed structures. The generative design software has the benefit of minimizing the mass of the structure, while keeping its structural integrity. The software does this by iterating through designs solving for stresses at each step, deciding where it is better to place a structure and then cutting mass at points where the structural integrity would not be compromised. Although the software creates a design on its own the user must define certain parameters: the preserve geometry (fundamental geometry for operation), obstacle geometry (sections that the software should leave without obstruction), the expected load case, manufacturing method, and material to be used. The end result is that the computer creates most efficient parts, allowing for a plastic 3D printed part to be able to safely replace one made of metal.
Author(s): Kaily Orr Engineering
Advisor(s): Tristan Tayag Engineering Robert Bittle Engineering Nina Martin Interdisciplinary
Location: Third Floor, Table 5, Position 2, 11:30-1:30
(Presentation is private)
Humans are complex beings that take in a variety of information in a variety of different ways. Understanding that every person processes information in a different way is an important pathway in determining class structure and the method in which information is delivered to students. Students are typically multimodal learners but have a preference for certain learning methods over others. These include but are not limited to lectures, videos, reading, or having a hands-on experience. Professors have the opportunity to enhance the learning environment of their students by either tailoring their teaching method toward individual students, or by using a teaching method that acknowledges and uses each form of learning. The objective of this project is to develop a human ventilation model and corresponding video that can be used during the Case Application Session (CAS) within the Pulmonary Module at the TCU School of Medicine.
Author(s): Carson Rapisura Engineering Angel Fripp Engineering Brian Ridzik Engineering Carter Wittschiebe Engineering
Advisor(s): Robert Bittle Engineering
Location: Basement, Table 10, Position 2, 1:45-3:45
Hiller Measurements requested a mechanical design process to produce the internal chassis of their customized aerospace test equipment. The 3D printing team explored additive manufacturing to produce the generatively designed chassis using an MSLA 3D printer and photopolymer resin. The team improved production quality by standardizing support, raft, and print speed settings. Troubleshooting common 3D printing errors included reducing the effects of elephant’s foot, minimizing peeling forces, and adjusting FEP film tightness. Post-processing involved exploring the effect of cure time on material performance by utilizing dynamic vibration testing and tensile & compression testing. Final assessments were made by considering the ease of assembly of all parts and holders. 3D printing was determined to be an effective tool for production when the parts are designed for manufacturing and when the material properties are in accordance with its desired functionality.
The reduction of CO2 emissions and the avoidance of Global Climate Change necessitate the conversion of the electricity generation industry to rely on non-carbon sources. Additionally, the mitigation of the duck-curve effects in microgrids requires the development of grid-independent buildings. Computations were performed for a cluster of one thousand grid-independent buildings in the North Texas area, where air-conditioning demand is high in the summer months. The electricity demand is balanced with energy supply generated from wind turbines, photovoltaic cells, or stored energy in hydrogen tanks. The results indicate that with one wind turbine operating, each building must be fitted with 10.2 kW rating photovoltaics capacity and a tank with 5.2 m3 of hydrogen storage capacity to satisfy the hourly demand of the buildings’ community. The addition of more wind turbines significantly reduces the needed PV rating but increases the required storage. Investing in energy conservation measures in the buildings significantly reduces both the needed storage capacity and the PV cell ratings.
Author(s): Elizabeth Trexler Engineering Joseph Barnes Engineering Daniel Perez Engineering Jennifer Rios Engineering Jack Wenberg Engineering
Advisor(s): Robert Bittle Engineering
Location: Third Floor, Table 4, Position 1, 11:30-1:30
The overall purpose of this project is to create a process for designing and manufacturing a Chassis (Mechanical Enclosure) for Hiller Measurements. As the Industrial Optimization sub-team, we focused on ways to optimize and fully document the process. The goal was to create procedures for utilizing 3-D generative design and printing software that most adults would be able to follow. Outside TCU students with little to no engineering background were brought in to test our procedures.
The purpose of this project is to create a closed loop system that will enable a continuous drying cycle of mined limestone through a rotating cylindrical dryer. Our client, Lhoist North America, has tasked us with designing this system, and our biggest issue has been putting together the system on a limited budget. We have determine that the most efficient method of designing the system is to used scrapped equipment that Lhoist has available and reconfiguring it for our design, rather than buying a new system. Another challenge we have faced is the method of transporting the mined limestone due to its sand-like qualities. We believe that the most effective method of designing the system will be by altering scrapped material from Lhoist’s scrapyard to complete a closed loop system of the limestone for the rotary dryer.
The parameters which were used to test the dryer was that the incline was set at 5 degrees, and the dryer rpm was at 5 and 10. Further, we used four rows of 90-degree lifters followed by four rows of radial lifters. We tested using a small grain limestone sample to be a middle of the road test. Originally, we started testing with one scoop (one quart) inside the cylinder, started the motor and turned to the 10 rpm, and added one quart every ten seconds until 4 total scoops were through the cylinder. The time this took was consistently right around the 90 second mark. However, when the volume was turned up, the findings were more interesting. When we started with a full five gallons inside of the cylinder, turned the motor up until 10 rpm, and added another five gallons at the 30 second mark, the time that it took for all of the material to exit the cylinder was right around the 90 second mark, the same time as when only a gallon of material went through the dryer.
We accumulate several cloud services on Amazon Web Services (AWS) into developing a serverless system in the cloud that replaces the current technical support request, which occurs via calls, in a classroom setting. The instructor can notify the so-called IT person with a press on the programmable Internet of Things (IoT) button. We plan to deploy the system at our university as a way for class instructors to request help without interrupting the lecture. The system is low-cost thanks to AWS's pay-as-you-go policy and easy to install.
(Presentation is private)
The most viable path to alleviate the Global Climate Change is the substitution of fossil fuel power plants for the generation of electricity with renewable energy units. The substitution requires the development of very large (utility-level) energy storage capacity, with the inherent thermodynamic irreversibility of the storage-recovery process. Currently the world also experiences a significant growth in the numbers of electric vehicles, which use very large batteries. A fleet of electric vehicles is equivalent to a relatively efficient storage capacity that may be used to supplement the energy storage system of the electricity grid. Calculations based on the demand-supply data of a large electricity grid show that, even though a fleet of electric vehicles cannot provide all the needed capacity for a large electricity grid, the superior round-trip storage efficiency of batteries significantly reduces the energy dissipation associated with the storage and recovery processes. A very small amount of battery storage significantly reduces the dissipated energy in the electricity grid. Also, improvements in the round-trip efficiencies of batteries are three times more effective than improvements in hydrogen storage systems.
The dryer is a steel cylinder, approximately 36 inches in diameter and five feet in length. The cylinder also spins at a rate up to 10 rpm. The inside surface contains 48 lifters. These lifters have two variants and are made of mild steel. They are designed to move limestone through the cylinder while the cylinder spins.
The drying of limestone is usually done industrially in a rotary drum dryer. The purpose of this project is to generate a model that will predict limestone particle motion as it passes through the dryer. By creating an accurate model of the particle movement during the drying cycle, the operator will be able increase the dryer’s efficiency. Using basic physics and through experimental testing, our team was able to produce a model that will provide detail of particle motion inside the dryer.
As part of one of the engineering capstone projects, a calibration testing system was improved with the aid of computer vision. Computer vision was integrated into this project as a solution to a rotating pedestal calibration test that was previously performed by the naked eye. The main goal of this system was to detect and track a red 635 nm wavelength laser spot with offsets as small as 0.025 inches on a 10 x 10 inch grid accurately and precisely. Designing this system involved three major criteria: camera selection, data processing hardware, and algorithm performance.
The first criteria studied in the design process was the camera. The system required a camera that was compact in size, covered the entirety of the grid at less than 11 inches, and captured high quality images. Furthermore, two main data processing hardwares were explored: Raspberry Pi and a standard test laptop. The processing hardware criteria considered were speed, portability, and maintenance. Finally, RGB and houghcircles were the two algorithms used to detect the red laser dot. Testing was conducted to compare the algorithms based on their ability to detect the laser spot, precision in tracking, and repeatability. These design considerations guided the down selects for the final components used in this system.
Author(s): Thomas Biesemeier Engineering Zach Hollis Engineering Ben Krause Engineering Talha Mushtaq Engineering
Advisor(s): Robert Bittle Engineering
Location: Session: 2; 3rd Floor; Table Number: 3
The LabVIEW team for the Applied Avionics Inc. project focuses on fully integrating the programming of all electrical components with LabVIEW. The major requirements for this project include utilizing LabVIEW to display and capture data feedback, completely automate the testing process, and to read and send data directly to AAI’s database. By creating an actuation and extraction feedback machine that is fully LabVIEW controlled, a variety of switch body types were able to be accommodated and tested. The machine has been shown to decrease variability of results and improve the efficiency of AAI’s current process in all aspects required.
We are presenting a method referred to as Hydrogen Production by HyPIR Electrolysis. The method increases the rate of hydrogen production from a 1 molar potassium hydroxide and water solution under 6 volts when an infrared laser is irradiated with an optimum wavelength of light through a cell and concentrated on exposed copper electrodes. The irradiating light facilitates the dissociation of water by stretching the hydrogen oxygen bonds and increasing the rate of hydrogen production. Production of hydrogen due to the class 4 laser is altered by the specifications of laser energy, pulses per second, and spot size.